The Prophet (P.B.U.H) said:
“It (Ramadan) is the month, whose beginning is mercy, its middle forgiveness and its end emancipation from the fire (of hell)”
The last ten days of Ramadan (Third Ashra) are most important and superior to the early two Ashra as Lailatul Qadar falls in the last Ashra. Also most of the Muslims practice Itekaf in the last Ashra. Here is a list of few things one should do during the last Ashra:
a). The Last ten days are emancipation from the fire so one should strive hard in these final days of fasting to Ask pardon and forgiveness from Allah. The Prophet (P.B.U.H) used to devote Himself more intensively to prayers and urged others too during the last Ashra of Ramadan. Narrated by Aisha (R.A):
“The Prophet (P.B.U.H) strove harder and took greater pains to observe prayer etc. during the last ten days of Ramadan than other days” (Muslim)
In another Hadith reported by Hazrat Aisha (R.A):
“When the last ten days of Ramadan began the Prophet (P.B.U.H) use to gird up the loins and keep awake in the nights. The Prophet (P.B.U.H) also wakened the members of His family (So that they may spend the night in worship too)” (Bukhari)
b). One should practice Atekaf in the last ten days of Ramadan. In a hadith narrated by Aisha (R.A):
‘Allah’s Apostle used to practice Itekaf in the last ten nights of Ramadan and used to say, “Look for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan” (Bukhari)
We should not waste the hours and nights of last Ashra and strive hard in worshipping Allah. One of the best ways is to practice Atekaf in which one stays in the Mosque and seeks pardon from Allah for his sins
c). Laila-tu-Qadr or the night of Power is to be searched in the odd nights of last ten days of Ramadan. It is the night in which the first Verses of Holy Quran were revealed to the Prophet (P.B.U.H) and this night has utmost importance as stated in the Hadith of Prophet (P.B.U.H):
“Whoever stays up (in prayer) on the Night of Qadr fully believing (in Allah’s promise of reward for that night) and hoping to seek reward (from Allah), he shall be forgiven for his past sins.” (Muslim)
d). the last ten days are a basis to make our bond stronger with Allah and to attain Taqwa. So this is the final step to seek closer to Allah and ask him to emancipate us from Hell. One can recite Adhkar and Dua’s for this purpose.
e). It is the best time to prepare for how to spend the rest of the year. Let us all make a resolution to ourselves to recite Quran with meaning and translation in the same manner and enthusiasm as we have done in Ramadan. Also pray in the Mosque as much as we can, just as we are doing during Ramadan.
Also after Ramadan, if one fasts for 6 days of Shawwal it is equivalent to fasting for one year. Ayyub (R.A) narrated that the Prophet (P.B.U.H) said:
“Whoever fasts Ramadan and follows it with six days from Shawwal it is as if they fasted the entire year.” (Abu Dawud)